RAWALPINDI MEDICAL UNIVERSITY
An abstract is ideally between 300-400 words. It is usually divided into five unique sections: Title and Author Information, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The following paragraphs summarize what is expected in each of these sections.
Title and Author Information: The title should summarize the abstract and convince the reviewers that the topic is important, relevant, and innovative. To create a winning title, write out 6 to 10 key words found in the abstract and string them into various sentences. Once you have a sentence that adequately conveys the meaning of the work, try to condense the title yet still convey the essential message.
Following the title, the names of all authors is listed. It is assumed the first author listed will make the oral presentation. Determine if the first author needs to meet any eligibility requirements to make the presentation. Moreover, you can also add the corresponding author’s information at the end of the abstract.
Introduction: This usually consists of several sentences outlining the question addressed by the research. Make the first sentence of the introduction as interesting and dramatic as possible. For example, "100,000 people each year die of…" is more interesting than "An important cause of mortality is…" If space permits, provide a concise review of what is known about the problem addressed by the research, what remains unknown, and how your research project fills the knowledge gaps. The final sentence of the introduction describes the purpose of the study or the study's hypothesis.
Material and Methods: This is a relatively difficult portion of the abstract. It must be scaled down sufficiently to allow the entire abstract to fit into the word limits, but at the same time it must be detailed enough to judge the validity of the work. For most research abstracts, the following areas are specifically mentioned: research design; research setting; sample size of the study; a description of the intervention (if appropriate); and a listing of the outcome variables and how they were measured. In this section you’re also supposed to specify the type of sampling used i.e. consecutive, convenience, random etc. Finally, the statistical methods used to analyze the data are described.
Results: This section begins with a description of the subjects that were included and excluded from the study. For those excluded, provide the reason for their exclusion. Next, list the frequencies of the most important outcome variables. If you have done any cross tabulations and applied analytical tests then this is the portion where you mention all the results and their inferences. If possible, present comparisons of the outcome variables between various subgroups within the study (treated vs. untreated, young vs. old, male vs. female, and so forth). Numerical results should include standard deviations or 95% confidence limits and the level of statistical significance.
Conclusion: State concisely what can be concluded and its implications. The conclusions must be supported by the data presented in the abstract; never present unsubstantiated personal opinion. If there is room, address the generalizability of the results to populations other than that studied and the weaknesses of the study.
Email your abstracts at firstname.lastname@example.orgLast Date of Submission 20th July, 2018